This Perspective article highlights the fact that despite causing significant amounts of damage to livestock, noncarnivore species such as feral pigs and elephants are often excluded from the livestock protection conversation, potentially leading to missed opportunities to improve mitigation strategies.
The Toxic Substances Control Act legally oversees the over 40,000 chemicals in the United States; however, this Perspective article maintains that the US Environmental Protection Agency's chemical evaluation plans do not reflect current science, recommending methods to improve evaluations to protect public health.
Citation metrics are widely used and misused. This Community Page article presents a publicly available database that provides standardized information on multiple citation indicators and a composite thereof, annotating each author according to his/her main scientific field(s).
This study applied principles that describe the growth dynamics of species within an ecosystem in a novel attempt to understand the growth of tumors. At low cell densities, cooperative interactions among cancer cells may influence growth in a manner reminiscent of the ecological "Allee effect," in contrast to conventional logistic growth models.
Novel pelagic baited cameras reveal the last refuges of declining shark populations, showing that proximity to human activity centres is increasingly limiting the distribution of sharks, and that there is a worrying mismatch between the current placement of protected areas and the remaining shark hotspots.
This study documents the neural basis of a sophisticated attentional system that is able to differentially distribute feature-based attention such that the strongest attentional modulation is directed towards those neurons that are the most informative contributors to the task at hand.
A variant histone H3 specific to the CTG clade of ascomycete fungi modulates the expression of the majority of the biofilm genes in the human pathogen Candida albicans by binding differentially to biofilm-relevant gene promoters.
Task-irrelevant distractors can automatically capture attention when they were previously associated with a high reward. This study shows that these high-valued distractors increased the fidelity of neural representations in retinotopically organized regions of visual cortex, showing that value-driven attentional capture begins with early sensory modulations of distractor representations in human visual system.
The brain activity detected during pain could be due merely to the fact that pain is arousing and attention-grabbing, rather than being directly attributable to the pain itself. This study identifies an area of the brain ' the parietal operculum ' whose activity can only be explained by the painfulness of pain.
The Toll-like receptors TLR7 and TLR8 are encoded by the X chromosome and expressed in X-containing sperm but not Y-containing sperm. TLR7/8 ligands suppress the motility of X-containing sperm, indicating that this receptor can differentially affect sperm function on the basis of the sex chromosome they bear.
Low temperatures delay aging and promote longevity in many organisms. This study shows that at low ambient temperatures, Mediator 15, a transcriptional coregulator, allows the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to live longer by increasing the levels of unsaturated lipids, helping to maintain protein homeostasis.
Computational modeling and experiments with Arabidopsis thaliana reveal a new mechanism for the coordination of circadian timing across an organism, acting through a combination of organ-specific sensitivity to environmental inputs and local cell-cell coupling.
The sexual cycle of Toxoplasma gondii is restricted to cats, the only mammals to lack delta-6-desaturase activity, with consequent high levels of linoleic acid. This study shows that inhibition of delta-6-desaturase and diet supplementation with linoleic acid allows Toxoplasma sexual development in mice, potentially opening up alternative model hosts.
A neuroimaging study shows that psychological contributors of chronic pain are represented in patterns of resting state functional connectivity; clustering analysis of these patterns suggests the existence of subtypes of chronic pain patients with specific clinical characteristics.
During left-right symmetry breaking in zebrafish, proliferation defects of dorsal forerunner cells are often accompanied by impaired cilia elongation in Kupffer's vesicle. This study shows that Cxcr4a signaling promotes the activity of Cyclin D1-CDK4/6, which accelerates the G1/S transition in dorsal forerunner cells and then facilitates cilia formation via stabilization of Foxj1a.
Nanodomain segregation and clustering of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor, a key target for type 2 diabetes therapy, is regulated by agonist binding, leading to compartmentalization of downstream signaling and clathrin-dependent internalization and impacting pancreatic beta cell responses.
Dendritic cells (DCs) play pivotal roles in T cell homeostasis and activation, but the basis of the metabolic programming of distinct DC functions remains unclear. This study identifies a novel metabolic-epigenetic node enabling DC control of CD8 T cell homeostasis, involving mTOR-ACC1 as a rheostat that balances fatty-acid synthesis and histone acetylation.
Activity-dependent phosphorylation of the glycine receptor a1ins subunit by metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 and ERK kinase signalling causes endocytosis of a1ins and glycinergic disinhibition in the spinal cord dorsal horn, contributing to pain sensitization.
The extended use of general anesthetics can cause neurobehavioral deficits in the developing brain, leading to clinical concerns regarding their use in children younger than 3 years. This study shows that general anesthetics target glial cells to disrupt neural circuit formation in the developing brain, an effect that may underlie the observed learning, cognitive, or emotional deficits.
An experimental evolution study involving an inefficiently spliced intron reveals that the splicing machinery, introns, and RNA quality control factors evolve in Cis and in Trans when cells optimize their transcriptome to new challenges.
Our ability to sense the speed at which a surface moves across our skin is highly unreliable and depends on the texture of the surface. This study shows that speed illusions can be predicted from the responses of a specific population of nerve fibers and of their downstream targets; because the skin is too sparsely innervated to compute tactile speed accurately, the nervous system relies on a heuristic to estimate it.
A novel genetic approach enables the visualization and manipulation of memory engram cells in Drosophila, providing a key methodological opportunity to characterize associative memory at the cellular and circuit level.
This study shows that CDCP1-positive cancer stem cells represent a critical driving force behind tumor relapse in colorectal tumors that have mutant Kras and reveals a unique role for the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway in this process.
A pathogenic bacteria is found to be attracted to bleach. Helicobacter pylori, notorious for causing stomach ulcers and cancer, senses bleach as an attractant, enabling it to localize to sites of inflamed gastric tissue (hypochlorous acid, the active agent of bleach, is produced by host neutrophils as an antimicrobial).
Threatening sounds can evoke a defensive behavior in animals to avoid potential harm. This study identifies a novel neural pathway in mice that projects directly from the auditory cortex to the lateral periaqueductal gray and controls defense-like behaviors evoked by a loud noise, supporting the notion that such behaviors are controlled by multiple neural circuits.
Stimulated emission depletion (STED) super-resolution microscopy shows that endoplasmic reticulum'shaping proteins regulate not only the macroscale organization of the ER (sheets versus tubules) but also the nanodomain heterogeneity and dynamics of peripheral ER tubules.
Exploratory analyses of two independent datasets comprising 151 million Americans and 1.4 million Danes revealed that polluted air was associated with a significantly increased risk of psychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.
Songbirds are renowned for their acoustically elaborate songs, but it is unclear whether they have cognitive control over their vocal output. Using operant conditioning, this study shows that carrion crows, songbirds of the corvid family, can exert control over their vocalizations.
Methods and Resources
Quantitative lipidomics reveal that the cell membrane lipidome of brite and brown adipocytes is comparable, but significantly different to that of white adipocytes. Beta-adrenergic stimulation of brown adipocytes induces generation of saturated lysophosphatidylcholine from phosphatidylcholine, increasing uncoupling protein (UCP) 1-mediated leak respiration.
This Methods and Resources paper describes Tagger, a knock-in mouse line bearing a quad-cistronic transgene that enables the capture of translating mRNAs, mature miRNAs, pulse-labeled total RNA, and the nucleus, all from specific cells of complex tissues.
A new computational method allows researchers to measure the properties of individual nuclei in situations in which cells are tightly packed together, for example, during differentiation of stem cells in culture or during early postimplantation development.