In this Research Matters article, Rodrigo Almeida argues that considering the social context of emerging plant diseases and effective science communication are essential for the management epidemics.
This Research Matters article remembers the early days of what became known as "metagenomics," as experienced by the author during his development as a scientist.
A key feature of human language is our ability to combine words into larger meaningful structures. This Essay argues that comparison with call combinations in non-human animals sheds light on the evolutionary origins of this ability.
Birth defects caused by congenital Zika virus have a heterogeneous spatio-temporal distribution; this Unsolved Mystery proposes that this could be explained by the interaction of diverse genetic and socio-environmental factors.
While risk aversion can dominate in negotiations for Material Transfer Agreements, this Perspective article maintains that examples of good practice provide us with strategies to improve the process for this important method of tracking provenance.
This Community Page article presents Best Match, a new relevance search algorithm for PubMed that allows readers to use machine learning to find articles that match their needs.
To improve movements the cerebellum relies on past "errors" ' deviations from desired outcomes. This study shows that the climbing fiber system conserves error information for future manifestations of the behavior.
Under environmental selection bacteria have evolved complex protein import pathways to access essential protein-bound nutrients, in order to dominate in an ecological niche.
Transport of lysophosphatidylcholine that contains essential polyunsaturated fatty acids into the brain by Mfsd2a during brain development is critical for regulation of Sterol Regulatory-Element Binding Proteins (SREBPs) and for postnatal brain growth.
Where do fat cells come from? This study identifies FSP1-positive fibroblasts in the stromal vascular fraction of white adipose tissue as the niche for preadipocytes, acting to maintain the preadipocyte pool and its differentiation potential.
Epigenetic silencing of the immune response by some pathogens and cancer cells is mediated by the histone H3K4 lysine demethylases KDM5B and KDM5C; inhibition of KDM5 activity may prove useful for the treatment of pathogen infection and cancer.
The canonical function of PRC2 (formation of the epigenetic mark H3K27me3) is essential for development of the mammary gland, acting through the repression of alternate transcription programs and maintenance of chromatin states.
Information decomposition of audio-visual speech perception yields novel insights into multisensory integration; information redundant between audio and visual modalities is represented by the left posterior superior temporal gyrus/sulcus, while synergistic information is represented in left motor cortex.
An optimized tissue-specific degradation strategy reveals that intestinal epithelial cells in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans require different proteins and mechanisms to build and organize centrosomal versus membrane-associated microtubules.
The main appetitive tastes ' sweet, umami and oleogustus ' are respectively tuned to the recognition of sugars, amino acids and fats. This report reveals a novel taste modality in Drosophila larvae, the taste for ribonucleosides, and identifies distinct receptors for their recognition.
An indigenous Mexican landrace of maize produces a mucilage on its aerial roots that hosts nitrogen-fixing bacteria and contributes up to 82% of the plant's nitrogen requirements.
This study reveals the existence of an ancient process for prioritized trafficking of problematic soluble cargo proteins out of the endoplasmic reticulum via the affinity of the Surf4/Erv29p receptor for different N-terminal tripeptides.
Comparison of in vivo genomic binding patterns of transcription factors BMAL1 and REV-ERB with 24-hour transcriptional and metabolic changes upon their loss reveals how the circadian clock directs the diurnal rhythms of muscle metabolism.
How long do individuals maintain protective levels of antibodies after vaccination or infection? This study shows that some individuals make longer-lasting responses to vaccines than others and quantifies how variation between individuals affects the decay of immunity at the population level.
During vertebrate retinal development, a non-cell autonomous redistribution of actin is prerequisite for a timely change of cell shape, which in turn enables isotropic growth of the tissue.
Structure-function dissection of the conserved transmembrane protein HAP2 defines a mechanism for target membrane insertion during gamete fusion, and provides insights into how this process evolved to accommodate the diversity of sexual reproductive systems.
Analysis of human intracranial electrocorticography data demonstrates that items in working memory are activated sequentially and that the activation is coordinated by coupled theta/alpha and gamma oscillations.
A high rate of either phenotypic or genetic transition from resistance to susceptibility allows phages to persist in populations dominated by bacteria within which the phages cannot replicate.
This study considers individual histories of influenza infection and immune dynamics acting at multiple timescales, enabling the authors to quantify antibody dynamics and estimate historical attack rates.
Release of neurotransmitter by dendrites resembles release from presynaptic terminals on axons; voltage-dependent sodium channels in dendritic spines are needed for synchronous GABA release, inhibition of olfactory bulb mitral cells and rapid odor discrimination.
Mathematical modeling suggests that delayed emergence of drug-resistant malaria in sub-Saharan Africa may be caused by within-host competition between drug-sensitive and drug-resistant parasites.
The decidual cell, a specialized cell type in the uterus of humans and closely-related mammals, evolved by hijacking a gene regulatory network that controlled a pregnancy-related stress response in ancestral mammals.
A combinatorial methodology enables engineering of the natural ligand M-CSF to convert it from an agonist into a potent bispecific inhibitor of the osteoclast cell surface receptors c-FMS and alpha vbeta 3 integrin, with therapeutic potential for osteoporosis.
Dendrite-pruning during maturation of the Drosophila nervous system is governed by a protein complex containing Prd1, alpha -Adaptin and Imac/Unc-104, acting via endo-lysosomal degradation of the cell adhesion molecule Neuroglian.
A FRET-based high-throughput screen that measures ATPs levels in individual mammalian cells identifies genes that regulate ATP level, as well as genetic defects that are responsive to energy-based therapies such as coenzyme Q10 supplementation.
Protein aggregates in Escherichia coli tend to emerge in response to sub-lethal proteotoxic exposures, after which these asymmetrically inherited structures serve as stress-induced, epigenetic memory that protects their carrier cells against subsequent proteotoxic stress.
A study of temporal and/or spatial information processing further supports the existence of subnetworks segregated along the proximodistal axis of hippocampal CA1 and CA3 that preferentially process spatial or non-spatial information.
A genetic screen identifies the calcium-regulated mitochondrial ATP transporter SLC25A25 as an evolutionarily conserved downstream effector of the ciliary transient receptor potential channel polycystin-2 (TRPP2).
It has long been known that cell size correlates with ploidy, but the mechanism underlying this has been unclear. A study in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows that the number of centromeres modulates G1 cyclin levels and, as a consequence, cell size.
The DNA sequence that determines the sex of wild strawberries has repeatedly jumped to new genomic locations during evolution, leading to increasingly differentiated sex chromosomes.
Methods and Resources
A combination of single- and two-photon optogenetic stimulation with two-photon calcium imaging allows all-optical interrogation of targeted neuronal populations and single-neurons in awake, behaving non-human primates.
Systems genetics analysis of a newly established mouse reference knowledge base comprising sleep-wake behaviour, brain activity, transcriptomic and metabolomic data reveals novel pathways implicated in sleep homeostasis.
The first genomes of great ape Plasmodium vivax-like, the closest relative to the human malaria pathogen Plasmodium vivax, reveal species-specific evolution, and identify key candidate genes potentially involved in adaptation to humans.
Recent studies on bird calls provide the first evidence for compositional syntax in a non-human communication system. This Formal Comment reviews these findings to refute recent criticism by Johan Bolhuis and co-authors.
A recent article claimed to discover the Great Barrier Reef's "life-support system". This Formal Comment shows that equally valid models identify very different life-support systems, casting doubt on the robustness of these results.
The authors of a Research Article in PLOS Biology respond to a recent Formal Comment, arguing why models of coral larva dispersal may provide useful insight for reef management.