In language, the meaning of an expression depends on the meaning of its parts and the way they are arranged. This Essay proposes that claims of similar linguistic processing in songbird vocalizing are unfounded.
Failure to act on recommendations to improve the quality of preclinical research is hampering our ability to conduct early human trials safely and ethically.
A meta-research study presents evidence that reporting bias impacts about one-fifth of the meta-analyses of association between health-related behavior and cardiovascular disease and mortality, but not comparable meta-analyses of statins.
The amygdala is known to control passive fear responses but does it also contribute to active behaviors? A study of monkeys performing a novel foraging task suggests that amygdala neurons facilitate targeting saccades predictably based on aspects of emotional context, as is necessary for goal-directed and social behavior.
The switch from caring for the brood to caring for adult nestmates, in the ant Temnothorax longispinosus, is mediated by shifts in social cue responsiveness which are in turn linked to the activity of the Vitellogenin-like A gene.
The transmembrane zinc transporter ZIPT-7.1 mediates the final, rapid stage in the development of sperm ("activation") in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, suggesting that zinc signaling regulates this specialized cell differentiation event.
The abundant RNA modification N6-methyladenosine plays important roles in the development of the mammalian cerebellum by controlling mRNA decay and alternative splicing.
A combination of structural biology and functional assays shows that two non-canonical initiation factors ' DENR and MCTS1 ' are required for re-initiation of translation after termination of an upstream open reading frame.
Computationally identified inhibitors that dissociate Ikappa B kinase complexes reduce acute inflammation and improve muscle pathology and strength in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
An observational study of ˜ballooning' flight by large Xysticus spiders reveals that they use 50-60 nanoscale silk fibers to catch light updraft currents in the atmospheric boundary layer.
The intrinsic interplay between ecological and evolutionary dynamics explains formation of species' range margins. This theoretical study shows that adaptation fails when genetic drift reduces genetic diversity below that required for adaptation to a heterogeneous environment.
In a Drosophila model of peroxisomal biogenesis disorders, medium chain fatty acids were found to play a hitherto unrecognized role in pathogenesis, involving the ceramide synthase Schlank.
On an economic task in which mice must decide whether to invest time to forage for food, mice demonstrate regret-related behaviors after change-of-mind decisions rejecting partial investments. Over time, mice adopt deliberation strategies to avoid future regret episodes.
Caffeine concentrations equivalent to those reached after four cups of coffee improve the functionality of cardiovascular cells both ex vivo and in vivo in a manner dependent on mitochondrially localized CDKN1B/p27.
Our immune system has a remarkable ability to remember pathogens it encountered decades earlier. An interdisciplinary study provides insight into how this memory is dynamically maintained by a dedicated population of stem cell-like memory T (TSCM) cells.
Reliable visual detection of predators or prey requires the ability to distinguish between moving objects and the consequences of one's own movement. This study shows that neurons in the striatum can selectively code for locomotion-congruent and self-independent visual motion percepts in rats.
Electrophysiological and behavioral studies in the weakly electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus reveal a novel function for feedback pathways in generating neural and behavioral responses to weak stimuli that would otherwise not be detected.
A combination of fMRI and advanced effective connectivity analyses reveals a source for the spatially global effect of feature-based attention in the human prefrontal cortex ' the inferior frontal junction.
Systems of sex determination are strikingly diverse and labile in many clades; what drives this? A modelling study reveals that new sex-determining systems evolve in more scenarios than expected, including cases where sex-linkage is reduced and/or sex ratio biases increase.
When proliferation is blocked in a subset of cells in developing foetal long-bones, normal body proportions are preserved via hyperproliferation of the spared cells and by systemic growth reduction.
Targeted analysis of the ATPase domain of the condensin subunit Smc4 reveals key insights into the process of ATP hydrolysis by condensin and how this activity contributes to genome remodeling and stability during cell division.
Maintenance of neural crest induction in chick embryos requires intermediate levels of BMP signaling. This study shows that these levels are set by intracellular attenuation of Smad signaling by the balance between scaffold protein CKIP-1 and ubiquitin ligase Smurf1.
A study of poliovirus suggests that high mutation rates evolve as a by-product of selection for increased replicative speed; within-host spread is associated with polymerase speed rather than fidelity.
Caenorhabditis elegans is coordinated by the sensing of mechanical stretches by the proprioceptive SMDD neurons, using two TRPC channels, TRP-1 and TRP-2.
Herpes viruses package their genomes into preformed capsids, pumping their DNA through a unique portal assembly. This study used cryo-electronmicroscopy to determine the structure of the portal vertex in Herpes Simplex Virus type 1.
Assessment of visual sensitivity before averaging saccades reveals that attention is not obligatorily coupled to the endpoint of a saccade, thereby providing evidence that spatial visual attention is not an obligatory consequence of oculomotor programming.
The degenerate remnants of two genes (RXFP2 and INSL3) resolve the controversial evolution of testicular descent by showing that Afrotherian mammals lost this developmental process.
Methods and Resources
Single-cell transcriptomic analysis of a well-understood system of cortical neurons (inhibitory interneurons in hippocampal area CA1) shows that continuous variation in gene expression correlates with axon target location.
This study describes new luminal and basal epithelial cell reporters that can both mark and conditionally kill cells by administration of toxins. The authors generate a mouse strain that expresses both reporters, and use this to identify Amigo2 as novel regulator of invasion in keratin14+ cancer epithelia.