Subject: PLOS Biology Volume 16(10) October 2018 Content-Type: text/html; charset="utf-8" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit

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New Articles in PLOS Biology

PUBLISHED: October 01, 2018 to October 31, 2018

Editorials

Confronting climate change in the age of denial

This Editorial introduces a Collection of articles in which the authors explore the challenges and pitfalls of communicating the science of climate change in an atmosphere where evidence doesn't matter.

Fifteen years in, what next for PLOS Biology?

As we celebrate our anniversary, the PLOS Biology editors discuss recent initiatives taken by the journal (meta-research, complementary research policy, preprint posting, short reports, methods and resources, data policy, protocols.io) and look ahead to the next fifteen years.

Essay

Is adaptive therapy natural?

The pragmatic strategies employed in adaptive therapy may also be employed naturally by multicellular organisms to deal with the inevitable development of malignant cells during growth and maintenance of normal tissue.

Perspectives

Should police have access to genetic genealogy databases? Capturing the Golden State Killer and other criminals using a controversial new forensic technique

This Perspective article presents survey data which suggest that the public may not be particularly concerned about police access to personal genetic data that populate genealogical databases when the purpose is considered justified.

The fault in his seeds: Lost notes to the case of bias in Samuel George Morton's cranial race science

Data of skull measurements found after 180 years re-open a longstanding discussion about the origins of scientific racism in America and the role of bias in science.

Tracking arctic marine mammal resilience in an era of rapid ecosystem alteration

Rapid loss of sea ice in the Arctic is altering marine mammal habitats. This Perspective article proposes a simple method to assess population status and guide conservation efforts.

(Escaping) the paradox of scientific storytelling

This Perspective article explores how can science preserve its credibility as curator of knowledge while using a story-based communication format that can motivate people to care about problems facing society (but is agnostic to truth).

Climate communication for biologists: When a picture can tell a thousand words

Snowballs are weather but glaciers are climate: this Perspective article argues the importance of using appropriate pictures when biologists communicate about climate change to the public.

Saving the horseshoe crab: A synthetic alternative to horseshoe crab blood for endotoxin detection

This Perspective calls upon the biomedical industry to convert from using horseshoe crab blood for endotoxin detection to a recombinant-based synthetic alternative, showing that it has equivalent or superior efficacy.

Community Pages

Crafting your scientist brand

In this Community Page article, Peter Hotez discusses the why, how (and how not) of cultivating your own personal brand as a scientist.

The Open Source Seed Licence: A novel approach to safeguarding access to plant germplasm

This Community Page article presents the Open-Source Seed Licence, developed by an interdisciplinary working group of plant breeders, agricultural scientists, lawyers and commons experts in Europe. The aim is to protect germplasm as a commons, support the free exchange of germplasm, stimulate plant breeding, reduce costs and accelerate innovation.

Spikeling: A low-cost hardware implementation of a spiking neuron for neuroscience teaching and outreach

This Community Page article presents Spikeling, a build-your-own open source in silico implementation of a spiking neuron that costs pounds 25 and mimics a wide range of neuronal behaviors for classroom education and public neuroscience outreach.

Open Highlights

Birds, blooms, and evolving diversity

In this Open Highlight, Senior Editor Lauren Richardson features exciting new Open Access research into how species evolve their characteristic traits.

Research Articles

Cross-resistance is modular in bacteria'phage interactions

Bacteriophages can be useful antibacterial agents. This study shows that bacterial resistance to a focal phage can provide cross-resistance to unrelated phages that bind the same host receptor, and that this cross-resistance predicts how well combinations of phage will suppress bacterial growth.

GABAergic modulation of olfactomotor transmission in lampreys

A study of modulation by the neurotransmitter GABA in the olfactory bulb reveals a novel neural pathway linking olfactory and motor centers in the brain of lampreys.

Noncoding RNA Ginir functions as an oncogene by associating with centrosomal proteins

The noncoding RNA Ginir functions as an oncogene, triggering dysregulation of mitosis by disrupting the interaction between Cep112 and Brca1, and causing malignant transformation.

Partial homologies between sleep states in lizards, mammals, and birds suggest a complex evolution of sleep states in amniotes

A study of sleep in lizards shows that as in mammals and birds, two distinct sleep states exist, suggesting that this is an ancestral feature of amniotes; however the phenotype of these states differs between closely related species.

Multimodal sensory information is represented by a combinatorial code in a sensorimotor system

Imaging populations of neurons in a sensorimotor system (the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system) reveals that different sensory modalities are represented by a combinatorial code of excitatory and inhibitory responses.

Peripherally derived macrophages modulate microglial function to reduce inflammation after CNS injury

In response to a CNS injury, peripheral immune cells infiltrate the lesion site and communicate directly with resident immune cells, suppress their key functions and aid recovery.

Phosphoglucomutase 1 inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma progression by regulating glucose trafficking

Phosphoglucomutase 1 is found to act as a metabolic tumor suppressor that inhibits the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma by switching glycolysis to glycogenesis.

Frontal network dynamics reflect neurocomputational mechanisms for reducing maladaptive biases in motivated action

This computational modelling study links midfrontal cortex theta oscillations to the detection of Pavlovian conflict, and the exertion of cognitive control to reduce the impact of maladaptive, Pavlovian biases (but not learning biases).

EBP1 nuclear accumulation negatively feeds back on FERONIA-mediated RALF1 signaling

Binding of the peptide ligand RALF1 to the plant receptor-like kinase FERONIA causes phosphorylation of EBP1 and promotes its nuclear-accumulation to regulate growth- and stress-related gene expression and provide negative feedback on RALF1 signaling.

Frontostriatal pathways gate processing of behaviorally relevant reward dimensions

People and animals typically both want and like rewards. This study shows that the interplay between medial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex and ventral striatum encodes and expresses the degree to which humans value rewards both motivationally and hedonically.

An alternative mode of epithelial polarity in the Drosophila midgut

A developmental study in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster shows that apical-basal polarity in the midgut epithelium is established by a different mechanism from other Drosophila epithelia, but more akin to that of vertebrate epithelia.

The microRNA-29/PGC1alpha regulatory axis is critical for metabolic control of cardiac function

Cardiometabolic regulation mediated by the microRNA miR-29 contributes to cardiac homeostasis through the control of the transcriptional co-activator PGC1a, a master regulator of mitochondrial biology.

Structure of the Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus: A new genus within the Nodaviridae?

Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) is an economically important pathogen of freshwater prawns. Determination of the structure of the MrNV virion by cryo-electron microscopy reveals a capsid protein that is highly divergent from other known nodaviruses but has a surprising resemblance to plant-infecting tombusviruses.

Root zone'specific localization of AMTs determines ammonium transport pathways and nitrogen allocation to shoots

A combination of cell type-targeted ammonium transporters and a Casparian strip mutant reveals the contribution of different transport pathways to the radial movement of ammonium and the partitioning of nitrogen between roots and shoots.

Disruption of CTCF-YY1'dependent looping of the human papillomavirus genome activates differentiation-induced viral oncogene transcription

Human papillomavirus uses the host cell's transcriptional regulators CTCF and YY1 to regulate early gene expression via the formation of an epigenetically repressed chromatin loop.

Pleiotropy, cooperation, and the social evolution of genetic architecture

A theoretical model shows how the evolution of cooperation in microbes can shape the genetic architecture, favouring a linkage between cooperation and the production of privately beneficial traits.

Covert spatial selection in primate basal ganglia

Neuronal recordings in monkeys reveal that the basal ganglia are involved in covert selective attention, demonstrating a link between this ancient brain structure and higher-level perceptual functions.

Neural timing of stimulus events with microsecond precision

A combination of sound-evoked extracellular field potential recordings and mathematical modeling reveals a neural code for the extraordinarily precise registration of the timing of acoustic events in echolocating bats.

QTL mapping of natural variation reveals that the developmental regulator bruno reduces tolerance to P-element transposition in the Drosophila female germline

Expression of oogenesis regulator bruno is a key determinant of fruit fly germline loss in the face of transposable element (TE) activity. This is the first example of natural variation in TE tolerance, whereby host cells modulate the deleterious effects without regulating transposition.

The Foxp3+ regulatory T-cell population requires IL-4Ralpha signaling to control inflammation during helminth infections

Host soluble mediators such as cytokines play a key role in the regulation of the immune response. This study shows that Foxp3+ regulatory T cells require an intact IL-4Ralpha -mediated signaling pathway to efficiently contain immune responses and control tissue inflammation during helminth infection.

Short Reports

Low-intensity electromagnetic fields induce human cryptochrome to modulate intracellular reactive oxygen species

Repetitive magnetic field stimulation induces the production of Reactive Oxygen Species in human cells through the action of cryptochromes. Cryptochromes are flavoprotein receptors implicated in magnetosensing in many organisms, indicating an evolutionarily conserved magnetic response mechanism.

Candida albicans biofilm'induced vesicles confer drug resistance through matrix biogenesis

The development of biofilm in the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans induces packaging of distinct vesicle cargoes that play a role in extracellular matrix biogenesis.

High-resolution frequency tuning but not temporal coding in the human cochlea

Electrophysiological recordings from the auditory nerve reveal sharper frequency tuning in humans than in animal models, but more limited phase-locking to the waveform of tones.

Nicotine exposure of male mice produces behavioral impairment in multiple generations of descendants

Nicotine-induced changes in the methylation of mouse spermatozoal DNA are associated with alterations in behavioral and neurotransmitter phenotypes of multiple generations descending from the nicotine-exposed males.

Preservation of myocardial contractility during acute hypoxia with OMX-CV, a novel oxygen delivery biotherapeutic

Can oxygen delivery be directed to severely hypoxic tissues? This study shows that an engineered hemoprotein with a high oxygen affinity can oxygenate failing sheep hearts without altering global oxygen exposure or triggering systemic toxicity.

EGFR signaling coordinates patterning with cell survival during Drosophila epidermal development

Cells lacking essential patterning determinants are eliminated from developing tissues by apoptosis; this study shows that cell death in fruit fly segmentation mutants results from disruption of the pattern of EGFR signalling, which in normal embryos coordinates segment size with patterning information.

Methods and Resources

Gene expression in response to optical defocus of opposite signs reveals bidirectional mechanism of visually guided eye growth

A transcriptomic study shows that myopic and hyperopic defocus signals drive the growth of developing primate eyes in opposite directions via different signaling pathways.

Running in the wheel: Defining individual severity levels in mice

The monitoring and clustering of voluntary wheel running provides a novel tool to assess severity in laboratory mice, thereby enabling unbiased individual severity grading that contributes to 3R principles.

Quantitative assessment of cell population diversity in single-cell landscapes

Single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) has become a powerful tool for the systematic investigation of cellular diversity. This study presents sc-UniFrac, a statistically robust single-cell diversity comparison tool that enables quantitative assessment of similarities and differences amongst multiple scRNA-seq samples.

Formal Comments

Population sampling affects pseudoreplication

This Formal Comment aims to clarify examples presented in a recent paper by Lazic et al., which provided guidance with respect to experimental design.

Training in experimental design and statistics is essential: Response to Jordan

This Formal Comment responds to Jordan et al., and stresses that if scientific findings are to be robust, training in experimental design and statistics is critical to ensure that research questions, design considerations, and analyses are aligned.

Correction

Correction: The Sacred Ibis debate: The first test of evolution

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