Subject: PLOS Biology Volume 15(4) April 2017 Content-Type: text/html; charset="utf-8" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit

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New Articles in PLOS Biology

PUBLISHED: April 01, 2017 to April 28, 2017

Research Matters

Cilia and sensory signaling: The journey from "animalcules" to human disease

Piali Sengupta discusses the contribution of nearly three centuries of basic research on cilia biology to our understanding of animal physiology and human disease.

Less fear, more diversity

In this Research Matters article, Gregory Quirk discusses how research on learned fear responses can be applied to the treatment of anxiety disorders, and how we can increase ethnic diversity in neuroscience.

Perspectives

Should biomedical research be like Airbnb?

In a data-driven digital era is the way we conduct biomedical research optimal? This essay argues that when compared to born digital enterprises it is not, and considers possible solutions.

The need for a worldwide consensus for cell line authentication: Experience implementing a mandatory requirement at the International Journal of Cancer

What can journals do to counteract the persisting problem of cell line cross-contamination in the published literature? This Perspective article examines what happened when the International Journal of Cancer took the lead by mandating cell line authentication at the point of submission.

The credibility crisis in research: Can economics tools help?

The issue of non-replicable evidence has attracted considerable attention across biomedical and other sciences. This Perspective article proposes that biomedical scientists' efforts to improve reproducibility can be facilitated by insights and methodological approaches used in economics.

Community Pages

The School Malaise Trap Program: Coupling educational outreach with scientific discovery

The School Malaise Trap Program teams up with thousands of students and educators across Canada to explore the arthropod diversity found in their schoolyards by utilizing DNA barcoding.

Gut Check: The evolution of an educational board game

This Community Page article describes the authors' experience of developing and producing "Gut Check: The Microbiome Game," which was created to be both educational as well as fun and challenging to play.

Research Articles

Accurate predictions of population-level changes in sequence and structural properties of HIV-1 Env using a volatility-controlled diffusion model

Small in-host fluctuations' in sequence and structural properties of HIV's Env protein among co-circulating viruses can predict the population-level changes that occurred in this protein over the past three decades.

Ongoing neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus mediates behavioral responses to ambiguous threat cues

Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus affects adaptive behavior when cues are ambiguous, even when cue discrimination, or pattern separation, is not possible.

eNOS S-nitrosylates beta -actin on Cys374 and regulates PKC-theta at the immune synapse by impairing actin binding to profilin-1

Post-translational S-nitrosylation of actin by nitric oxide from endothelial nitric oxide synthase regulates the organization of protein kinase C-q and its signalling at the immune synapse of T cells.

Convergent evolution of SWS2 opsin facilitates adaptive radiation of threespine stickleback into different light environments

Adaptation of stickleback color vision genes to life in blackwater lakes shows that convergent evolution can be based on the same genetic mechanism over very different evolutionary time scales.

Bordetella bronchiseptica exploits the complex life cycle of Dictyostelium discoideum as an amplifying transmission vector

This study establishes the ability of the bacterium Bordetella bronchiseptica to evade amoebic predation while exploiting the amoeba as a dissemination and expansion vector, thereby identifying a novel environmental reservoir for bordetellae.

A novel mechanism of cone photoreceptor adaptation

Vertebrate cone photoreceptors optimize their signal transmission by speeding up in high-contrast natural lighting conditions'and slowing down in low-contrast conditions'via modulation of the voltage activated current, Ih.

Water diffusion closely reveals neural activity status in rat brain loci affected by anesthesia

Pharmacological studies of diffusion fMRI using anaesthetic agents and various challenges reveal that water diffusion (apparent diffusion coefficient, or ADC) quantitatively reflects the underlying neural activity and is associated with local cell swelling.

A latitudinal phylogeographic diversity gradient in birds

Genetic variation within bird species forms a latitudinal diversity gradient that is similar to the pattern of high species diversity in the tropics.

A Ca2+ channel differentially regulates Clathrin-mediated and activity-dependent bulk endocytosis

How does the cell balance exocytosis with endocytosis? This study reveals how a synaptic vesicle-associated calcium channel, transferred to endocytic zones during neurotransmission, promotes one form of endocytosis under mild stimulation and'by triggering calcium influx'another form under intense stimulation.

Transcriptional regulatory logic of the diurnal cycle in the mouse liver

Temporally resolved measurements of chromatin accessibility, H3K27ac enrichment and RNA polymerase II loading in mouse liver around the clock shed light on the underlying circadian gene regulatory network and its transcriptional interconnection with the feeding-fasting cycles.

Multidrug-resistant bacteria compensate for the epistasis between resistances

Compensation in multi-drug resistant bacteria can be driven by further mutations that in turn compensate for the epistatic interactions between the resistance mutations; this favors the stabilization of multiple resistances in bacterial populations

A critical-like collective state leads to long-range cell communication in Dictyostelium discoideum aggregation

A multiscale model and imaging data show that cells of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum maximize their cell'cell communication range during aggregation by a critical-like state known from phase transitions in physical systems.

Molecular regionalization of the developing amphioxus neural tube challenges major partitions of the vertebrate brain

A study of gene expression patterns in the developing nervous system of the basal chordate amphioxus highlights its complex molecular regionalization and challenges the classic separation between forebrain and midbrain in vertebrate brains.

Commensal bacteria and essential amino acids control food choice behavior and reproduction

Animals control their diet by regulating intake of specific nutrients, including proteins. This study identifies essential amino acids and'surprisingly'specific gut bacteria as key factors regulating protein appetite.

Sequence learning modulates neural responses and oscillatory coupling in human and monkey auditory cortex

A comparative intracranial recording study in human and nonhuman primates shows how learning to predict the order of environmental events coordinates diverse neuronal responses across time and scale.

The mismatch repair and meiotic recombination endonuclease Mlh1-Mlh3 is activated by polymer formation and can cleave DNA substrates in trans

The Mlh1-Mlh3 endonuclease functions in meiotic recombination to resolve double Holliday Junction intermediates into crossovers. Biochemical analysis shows that, rather than acting as a structure-specific endonuclease, Mlh1-Mlh3 forms polymers that are required to generate nicks in DNA.

Correction

Correction: The mechanism of sirtuin 2-mediated exacerbation of alpha-synuclein toxicity in models of Parkinson disease

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