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New Articles in PLOS Biology

Published November 01, 2016 to November 30, 2016

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PLOS Biology
Volume 14(11) November 2016

View Table of Contents on web site

Perspectives

Beyond Our Borders? Public Resistance to Global Genomic Data Sharing
Mary A. Majumder, Robert Cook-Deegan, Amy L. McGuire

The scientific community may be overlooking a significant barrier to international collaboration reflected in a series of recent surveys: potential public resistance to sharing of genomic and other health-related data across national borders.


Current Incentives for Scientists Lead to Underpowered Studies with Erroneous Conclusions
Andrew D. Higginson, Marcus R. Munafò

Current incentive structures in science will lead researchers to spend most of their effort seeking novel results in small, underpowered studies. As a result, half of the studies they publish will report erroneous conclusions.


Primers

Modifiers of the Genotype–Phenotype Map: Hsp90 and Beyond
Rachel Schell, Martin Mullis, Ian M. Ehrenreich

Perturbation of certain genes transforms the relationship between genotype and phenotype. This Primer examines how recent research on the chaperone Hsp90 has helped to improve our understanding of why this phenomenon occurs. Read the related Research Article.


Origins of Biodiversity
Michael J. Benton

Biodiversity is uneven across the evolutionary tree. New methods allow comparative biologists to explain some of the imbalances, for example between land and sea, by latitude, and by clade age. Read the related Research Article.


Rosalind’s Ghost: Biology, Collaboration, and the Female
Caroline Wagner

Science has become increasingly collaborative and team-based, but this Primer explores recent research that reveals striking differences between male and female collaborative behavior in the biological literature. Read the related Meta-Research Article.


Community Page

Project BioEYES: Accessible Student-Driven Science for K–12 Students and Teachers
Jamie R. Shuda, Valerie G. Butler, Robert Vary, Steven A. Farber

BioEYES is a science outreach and teacher development program effective at increasing K-12 students’ science knowledge while simultaneously fostering favorable attitudes towards science.


Meta-Research Articles

Differences in Collaboration Patterns across Discipline, Career Stage, and Gender
Xiao Han T. Zeng, Jordi Duch, Marta Sales-Pardo, João A. G. Moreira, Filippo Radicchi, Haroldo V. Ribeiro, Teresa K. Woodruff, Luís A. Nunes Amaral

An empirical analysis of researchers' publications reveals that females have fewer distinct coauthors yet have a lower chance of repeating previous coauthors than their male counterparts.


Animal Study Registries: Results from a Stakeholder Analysis on Potential Strengths, Weaknesses, Facilitators, and Barriers
Susanne Wieschowski, Diego S. Silva, Daniel Strech

Can animal study registries help to increase value and reduce waste in research? This interview-based study revealed the comprehensive spectrum of potential strengths, weaknesses, barriers and facilitators for animal study registries.


Research Articles

Prefrontal Markers and Cognitive Performance Are Dissociated during Progressive Dopamine Lesion
Charles R. E. Wilson, Julien Vezoli, Frederic M. Stoll, Maïlys C. M. Faraut, Vincent Leviel, Kenneth Knoblauch, Emmanuel Procyk

Neural recordings during dopaminergic depletion shed doubt on our current understanding of the direct link between frontal dopaminergic inputs, frontal neurophysiology, and cognitive performance.


Plasticity in Single Axon Glutamatergic Connection to GABAergic Interneurons Regulates Complex Events in the Human Neocortex
Viktor Szegedi, Melinda Paizs, Eszter Csakvari, Gabor Molnar, Pal Barzo, Gabor Tamas, Karri Lamsa

This study finds that very large excitatory synapses to GABAergic interneurons, only reported in humans, control the generation of neocortical cell assemblies through long-term plasticity. The plasticity mechanism is presynaptic, evolutionarily conserved, and depends on group I metabotropic glutamate receptors.


Approach-Induced Biases in Human Information Sampling
Laurence T. Hunt, Robb B. Rutledge, W. M. Nishantha Malalasekera, Steven W. Kennerley, Raymond J. Dolan

Data from a smartphone experiment involving more than 30,000 human subjects reveals systematic biases in how we sample information for rewards. While apparently irrational, this may have been evolutionarily adaptive.


Prediction Errors but Not Sharpened Signals Simulate Multivoxel fMRI Patterns during Speech Perception
Helen Blank, Matthew H. Davis

Neuroimaging and computational modelling explain how the human brain uses prior expectations to improve our perception of degraded speech.


Pharmacological Fingerprints of Contextual Uncertainty
Louise Marshall, Christoph Mathys, Diane Ruge, Archy O. de Berker, Peter Dayan, Klaas E. Stephan, Sven Bestmann

Pharmacological interventions and hierarchical Bayesian modelling pinpoint the roles of noradrenaline, acetylcholine, and dopamine in computing different forms of uncertainty and in sensitizing actions to our beliefs about uncertainty.


The Machado–Joseph Disease Deubiquitinase Ataxin-3 Regulates the Stability and Apoptotic Function of p53
Hongmei Liu, Xiaoling Li, Guozhu Ning, Shu Zhu, Xiaolu Ma, Xiuli Liu, Chunying Liu, Min Huang, Ina Schmitt, Ullrich Wüllner, Yamei Niu, Caixia Guo, Qiang Wang, Tie-Shan Tang

Polyglutamine expansions in the deubiquitinating enzyme ataxin-3 cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3). This study identifies p53 to be a substrate of ataxin-3, and explains how the expansions cause the neuronal death that is characteristic of SCA3 pathology.


ADAMTS5 Is a Critical Regulator of Virus-Specific T Cell Immunity
Meagan McMahon, Siying Ye, Leonard Izzard, Daniel Dlugolenski, Ralph A. Tripp, Andrew G. D. Bean, Daniel R. McCulloch, John Stambas

The extracellular matrix enzyme ADAMTS5 enhances the clearance of viruses by facilitating migration of T lymphocytes to the periphery following influenza virus infection.


Phylosymbiosis: Relationships and Functional Effects of Microbial Communities across Host Evolutionary History
Andrew W. Brooks, Kevin D. Kohl, Robert M. Brucker, Edward J. van Opstal, Seth R. Bordenstein

Microbial communities can strongly predict host species origin and assemble in an evolutionarily-informed manner; moreover, communities are better suited for their resident host species than closely related host species.


A Normalization Framework for Emotional Attention
Xilin Zhang, Shruti Japee, Zaid Safiullah, Nicole Mlynaryk, Leslie G. Ungerleider

Using a combination of psychophysics and functional MRI, this study reveals that emotional attention interacts with normalization processes depending on emotional valence (positive or negative faces), best explained by feedback modulation from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.


Distribution of Misfolded Prion Protein Seeding Activity Alone Does Not Predict Regions of Neurodegeneration
James Alibhai, Richard A. Blanco, Marcelo A. Barria, Pedro Piccardo, Byron Caughey, V. Hugh Perry, Tom C. Freeman, Jean C. Manson

The distribution of misfolded prion protein seeding activity alone does not predict regions of neurodegeneration in prion disease; rather, a complex microglial response appears to determine selective vulnerability and provides new strategies for therapy.


SOX2 and PI3K Cooperate to Induce and Stabilize a Squamous-Committed Stem Cell Injury State during Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Pathogenesis
Bo Ram Kim, Emily Van de Laar, Michael Cabanero, Shintaro Tarumi, Stefan Hasenoeder, Dennis Wang, Carl Virtanen, Takaya Suzuki, Bizhan Bandarchi, Shingo Sakashita, Nhu An Pham, Sharon Lee, Shaf Keshavjee, Thomas K. Waddell, Ming-Sound Tsao, Nadeem Moghal

A study of tracheobronchial basal cells reveals a mechanism by which lung squamous cell carcinoma is almost universally initiated by exploitation of a stem cell injury response involving SOX2 and PI3K.


Virus-Mediated Alterations in miRNA Factors and Degradation of Viral miRNAs by MCPIP1
Christine Happel, Dhivya Ramalingam, Joseph M. Ziegelbauer

Some cancer viruses express their own microRNAs; this study investigates how a virus can counteract the human antiviral protein MCPIP1 that otherwise degrades viral microRNAs.


Cyp26 Enzymes Facilitate Second Heart Field Progenitor Addition and Maintenance of Ventricular Integrity
Ariel B. Rydeen, Joshua S. Waxman

Investigation of the hearts of zebrafish embryos unable to degrade retinoic acid shows that failure to add second heart field progenitors results in outflow tract defects, and disruption of the extracellular environment causes loss of ventricular integrity.


Decoding the Interactions Regulating the Active State Mechanics of Eukaryotic Protein Kinases
Hiruy S. Meharena, Xiaorui Fan, Lalima G. Ahuja, Malik M. Keshwani, Christopher L. McClendon, Angela M. Chen, Joseph A. Adams, Susan S. Taylor

The active state mechanics of eukaryotic protein kinases are harmoniously governed by intramolecular hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions from different regions of the catalytic core.


Correction

Correction: Ribosomal Stalk Protein Silencing Partially Corrects the ΔF508-CFTR Functional Expression Defect
The PLOS Biology Staff




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