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New Articles in PLOS Biology
Published November 01, 2016 to November 30, 2016
Beyond Our Borders? Public Resistance to Global Genomic Data Sharing
The scientific community may be overlooking a significant barrier to international collaboration reflected in a series of recent surveys: potential public resistance to sharing of genomic and other health-related data across national borders.
Current Incentives for Scientists Lead to Underpowered Studies with Erroneous Conclusions
Current incentive structures in science will lead researchers to spend most of their effort seeking novel results in small, underpowered studies. As a result, half of the studies they publish will report erroneous conclusions.
Modifiers of the Genotype–Phenotype Map: Hsp90 and Beyond
Perturbation of certain genes transforms the relationship between genotype and phenotype. This Primer examines how recent research on the chaperone Hsp90 has helped to improve our understanding of why this phenomenon occurs. Read the related Research Article.
Origins of Biodiversity
Biodiversity is uneven across the evolutionary tree. New methods allow comparative biologists to explain some of the imbalances, for example between land and sea, by latitude, and by clade age. Read the related Research Article.
Rosalind’s Ghost: Biology, Collaboration, and the Female
Science has become increasingly collaborative and team-based, but this Primer explores recent research that reveals striking differences between male and female collaborative behavior in the biological literature. Read the related Meta-Research Article.
Project BioEYES: Accessible Student-Driven Science for K–12 Students and Teachers
BioEYES is a science outreach and teacher development program effective at increasing K-12 students’ science knowledge while simultaneously fostering favorable attitudes towards science.
Differences in Collaboration Patterns across Discipline, Career Stage, and Gender
An empirical analysis of researchers' publications reveals that females have fewer distinct coauthors yet have a lower chance of repeating previous coauthors than their male counterparts.
Animal Study Registries: Results from a Stakeholder Analysis on Potential Strengths, Weaknesses, Facilitators, and Barriers
Can animal study registries help to increase value and reduce waste in research? This interview-based study revealed the comprehensive spectrum of potential strengths, weaknesses, barriers and facilitators for animal study registries.
Prefrontal Markers and Cognitive Performance Are Dissociated during Progressive Dopamine Lesion
Neural recordings during dopaminergic depletion shed doubt on our current understanding of the direct link between frontal dopaminergic inputs, frontal neurophysiology, and cognitive performance.
Plasticity in Single Axon Glutamatergic Connection to GABAergic Interneurons Regulates Complex Events in the Human Neocortex
This study finds that very large excitatory synapses to GABAergic interneurons, only reported in humans, control the generation of neocortical cell assemblies through long-term plasticity. The plasticity mechanism is presynaptic, evolutionarily conserved, and depends on group I metabotropic glutamate receptors.
Approach-Induced Biases in Human Information Sampling
Data from a smartphone experiment involving more than 30,000 human subjects reveals systematic biases in how we sample information for rewards. While apparently irrational, this may have been evolutionarily adaptive.
Prediction Errors but Not Sharpened Signals Simulate Multivoxel fMRI Patterns during Speech Perception
Neuroimaging and computational modelling explain how the human brain uses prior expectations to improve our perception of degraded speech.
Pharmacological Fingerprints of Contextual Uncertainty
Pharmacological interventions and hierarchical Bayesian modelling pinpoint the roles of noradrenaline, acetylcholine, and dopamine in computing different forms of uncertainty and in sensitizing actions to our beliefs about uncertainty.
The Machado–Joseph Disease Deubiquitinase Ataxin-3 Regulates the Stability and Apoptotic Function of p53
Polyglutamine expansions in the deubiquitinating enzyme ataxin-3 cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3). This study identifies p53 to be a substrate of ataxin-3, and explains how the expansions cause the neuronal death that is characteristic of SCA3 pathology.
ADAMTS5 Is a Critical Regulator of Virus-Specific T Cell Immunity
The extracellular matrix enzyme ADAMTS5 enhances the clearance of viruses by facilitating migration of T lymphocytes to the periphery following influenza virus infection.
Phylosymbiosis: Relationships and Functional Effects of Microbial Communities across Host Evolutionary History
Microbial communities can strongly predict host species origin and assemble in an evolutionarily-informed manner; moreover, communities are better suited for their resident host species than closely related host species.
A Normalization Framework for Emotional Attention
Using a combination of psychophysics and functional MRI, this study reveals that emotional attention interacts with normalization processes depending on emotional valence (positive or negative faces), best explained by feedback modulation from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.
Distribution of Misfolded Prion Protein Seeding Activity Alone Does Not Predict Regions of Neurodegeneration
The distribution of misfolded prion protein seeding activity alone does not predict regions of neurodegeneration in prion disease; rather, a complex microglial response appears to determine selective vulnerability and provides new strategies for therapy.
SOX2 and PI3K Cooperate to Induce and Stabilize a Squamous-Committed Stem Cell Injury State during Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Pathogenesis
A study of tracheobronchial basal cells reveals a mechanism by which lung squamous cell carcinoma is almost universally initiated by exploitation of a stem cell injury response involving SOX2 and PI3K.
Virus-Mediated Alterations in miRNA Factors and Degradation of Viral miRNAs by MCPIP1
Some cancer viruses express their own microRNAs; this study investigates how a virus can counteract the human antiviral protein MCPIP1 that otherwise degrades viral microRNAs.
Cyp26 Enzymes Facilitate Second Heart Field Progenitor Addition and Maintenance of Ventricular Integrity
Investigation of the hearts of zebrafish embryos unable to degrade retinoic acid shows that failure to add second heart field progenitors results in outflow tract defects, and disruption of the extracellular environment causes loss of ventricular integrity.
Decoding the Interactions Regulating the Active State Mechanics of Eukaryotic Protein Kinases
The active state mechanics of eukaryotic protein kinases are harmoniously governed by intramolecular hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions from different regions of the catalytic core.