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Current Issue of Nature


Current Issue : Nature

Current Issue

Volume 541 Number 7638 pp435-568

26 January 2017

About the cover

The cover shows Jackson Pollock’s painting One: Number 31, 1950 in the Museum of Modern Art in New York. The ‘wisdom of the crowd’ approach has been widely adopted in recent years as a democratic way of determining a truth, fuelled in part by an enthusiasm for online voting procedures. But the crowd is not always correct and can actually be ‘unwise’, partly because specialized knowledge is often not widely shared. Here Dražen Prelec and colleagues combine the virtues of a ‘democratic’ algorithm, allowing anyone, irrespective of credentials, to register an opinion, with an ‘elitist’ outcome that associates truth with the judgements of a few experts. The strategy is based on selecting the answer that is more popular than people would predict, rather than relying solely on ‘most popular’ or ‘most confident’ answers. Cover: Shutterstock.

This Week

Editorials

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World View

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Seven Days

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News in Focus

Feature

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    comment

    • Reform predictive policing

      Police agencies, software firms and the public must ensure that crime-forecasting software improves public safety and officer accountability, writes Aaron Shapiro.

    Books and Arts

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    • Higher education: The making of US academia

      Rogers Hollingsworth traces the European influence on US research universities that began some 150 years ago.

      • Review of The Rise of the Research University: A Sourcebook
        Louis Menand, Paul Reitter & Chad Wellmon
    • Bioethics: Democracy in vitro

      Insoo Hyun weighs up a treatise exploring the ethical deliberations surrounding embryo research.

      • Review of Experiments in Democracy: Human Embryo Research and the Politics of Bioethics
        J. Benjamin Hurlbut
    • Books in brief

      Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week's best science picks.

    Correspondence

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    Careers

    Features

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    Q&As

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    naturejobs job listings and advertising features

    Futures

    Specials

    Technology Feature

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    research

    Brief Communications Arising

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    Review

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    • Chiral quantum optics

      • Peter Lodahl
      • Sahand Mahmoodian
      • Søren Stobbe
      • Arno Rauschenbeutel
      • Philipp Schneeweiss
      • Jürgen Volz
      • Hannes Pichler
      • Peter Zoller

      The experimental state-of-the-art in the field of chiral quantum optics is reviewed and the ways in which chiral light–matter interaction could be exploited to add a new dimension of control to quantum networks and quantum many-body physics are discussed.

    Articles

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    • Neurotoxic reactive astrocytes are induced by activated microglia

      • Shane A. Liddelow
      • Kevin A. Guttenplan
      • Laura E. Clarke
      • Frederick C. Bennett
      • Christopher J. Bohlen
      • Lucas Schirmer
      • Mariko L. Bennett
      • Alexandra E. Münch
      • Won-Suk Chung
      • Todd C. Peterson
      • Daniel K. Wilton
      • Arnaud Frouin
      • Brooke A. Napier
      • Nikhil Panicker
      • Manoj Kumar
      • Marion S. Buckwalter
      • David H. Rowitch
      • Valina L. Dawson
      • Ted M. Dawson
      • Beth Stevens
      • Ben A. Barres

      A reactive astrocyte subtype termed A1 is induced after injury or disease of the central nervous system and subsequently promotes the death of neurons and oligodendrocytes.

    • Communication between viruses guides lysis–lysogeny decisions

      • Zohar Erez
      • Ida Steinberger-Levy
      • Maya Shamir
      • Shany Doron
      • Avigail Stokar-Avihail
      • Yoav Peleg
      • Sarah Melamed
      • Azita Leavitt
      • Alon Savidor
      • Shira Albeck
      • Gil Amitai
      • Rotem Sorek

      Some phages—viruses that infect bacteria—encode peptides that are secreted from infected cells and that, beyond a certain threshold, stimulate other viruses to switch from the lytic (killing the host cell) to lysogenic (dormant) phase.

      See also
    • Translation from unconventional 5′ start sites drives tumour initiation

      • Ataman Sendoel
      • Joshua G. Dunn
      • Edwin H. Rodriguez
      • Shruti Naik
      • Nicholas C. Gomez
      • Brian Hurwitz
      • John Levorse
      • Brian D. Dill
      • Daniel Schramek
      • Henrik Molina
      • Jonathan S. Weissman
      • Elaine Fuchs

      The translation of upstream open reading frames in skin tumour models protects some cancer-related mRNAs from global reductions in protein synthesis during the early stages of tumour initiation, suggesting that unconventional translation has a crucial role in tumorigenesis.

      See also
    • Structure of a CLC chloride ion channel by cryo-electron microscopy

      • Eunyong Park
      • Ernest B. Campbell
      • Roderick MacKinnon

      Some CLC proteins are channels that conduct chloride ions passively, whereas others are active co-transporters, a difference that has been hard to understand given their high degree of sequence homology; now, cryo-electron microscopy is used to determine the structure of a mammalian CLC channel, shedding light on this question.

    Letters

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    • Observation of the 1S–2S transition in trapped antihydrogenOpen

      • M. Ahmadi
      • B. X. R. Alves
      • C. J. Baker
      • W. Bertsche
      • E. Butler
      • A. Capra
      • C. Carruth
      • C. L. Cesar
      • M. Charlton
      • S. Cohen
      • R. Collister
      • S. Eriksson
      • A. Evans
      • N. Evetts
      • J. Fajans
      • T. Friesen
      • M. C. Fujiwara
      • D. R. Gill
      • A. Gutierrez
      • J. S. Hangst
      • W. N. Hardy
      • M. E. Hayden
      • C. A. Isaac
      • A. Ishida
      • M. A. Johnson
      • S. A. Jones
      • S. Jonsell
      • L. Kurchaninov
      • N. Madsen
      • M. Mathers
      • D. Maxwell
      • J. T. K. McKenna
      • S. Menary
      • J. M. Michan
      • T. Momose
      • J. J. Munich
      • P. Nolan
      • K. Olchanski
      • A. Olin
      • P. Pusa
      • C. Ø. Rasmussen
      • F. Robicheaux
      • R. L. Sacramento
      • M. Sameed
      • E. Sarid
      • D. M. Silveira
      • S. Stracka
      • G. Stutter
      • C. So
      • T. D. Tharp
      • J. E. Thompson
      • R. I. Thompson
      • D. P. van der Werf
      • J. S. Wurtele

      The 1S–2S transition in magnetically trapped atoms of antihydrogen is observed, and its frequency is shown to be consistent with that expected for hydrogen.

      See also
    • High-spatial-resolution mapping of catalytic reactions on single particles

      • Chung-Yeh Wu
      • William J. Wolf
      • Yehonatan Levartovsky
      • Hans A. Bechtel
      • Michael C. Martin
      • F. Dean Toste
      • Elad Gross

      The chemical conversion of N-heterocyclic carbene molecules attached to catalytic particles is monitored at high spatial resolution using synchrotron-radiation-based infrared nanospectroscopy.

    • Compensatory water effects link yearly global land CO2 sink changes to temperature

      • Martin Jung
      • Markus Reichstein
      • Christopher R. Schwalm
      • Chris Huntingford
      • Stephen Sitch
      • Anders Ahlström
      • Almut Arneth
      • Gustau Camps-Valls
      • Philippe Ciais
      • Pierre Friedlingstein
      • Fabian Gans
      • Kazuhito Ichii
      • Atul K. Jain
      • Etsushi Kato
      • Dario Papale
      • Ben Poulter
      • Botond Raduly
      • Christian Rödenbeck
      • Gianluca Tramontana
      • Nicolas Viovy
      • Ying-Ping Wang
      • Ulrich Weber
      • Sönke Zaehle
      • Ning Zeng

      A study of how temperature and water availability fluctuations affect the carbon balance of land ecosystems reveals different controls on local and global scales, implying that spatial climate covariation drives the global carbon cycle response.

    • A solution to the single-question crowd wisdom problem

      • Dražen Prelec
      • H. Sebastian Seung
      • John McCoy

      The wisdom of the crowd can be improved by using an algorithm that selects the answer that is more popular than people predict, rather than the answer that is most popular.

    • Evolutionary genomics of the cold-adapted diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrusOpen

      • Thomas Mock
      • Robert P. Otillar
      • Jan Strauss
      • Mark McMullan
      • Pirita Paajanen
      • Jeremy Schmutz
      • Asaf Salamov
      • Remo Sanges
      • Andrew Toseland
      • Ben J. Ward
      • Andrew E. Allen
      • Christopher L. Dupont
      • Stephan Frickenhaus
      • Florian Maumus
      • Alaguraj Veluchamy
      • Taoyang Wu
      • Kerrie W. Barry
      • Angela Falciatore
      • Maria I. Ferrante
      • Antonio E. Fortunato
      • Gernot Glöckner
      • Ansgar Gruber
      • Rachel Hipkin
      • Michael G. Janech
      • Peter G. Kroth
      • Florian Leese
      • Erika A. Lindquist
      • Barbara R. Lyon
      • Joel Martin
      • Christoph Mayer
      • Micaela Parker
      • Hadi Quesneville
      • James A. Raymond
      • Christiane Uhlig
      • Ruben E. Valas
      • Klaus U. Valentin
      • Alexandra Z. Worden
      • E. Virginia Armbrust
      • Matthew D. Clark
      • Chris Bowler
      • Beverley R. Green
      • Vincent Moulton
      • Cock van Oosterhout
      • Igor V. Grigoriev

      The genome of the Southern Ocean phytoplankton Fragilariopsis cylindrus differs markedly from the genomes of its more temperate relatives, with divergent alleles being differentially expressed in environmentally specific conditions such as freezing and darkness.

    • The Hippo kinases LATS1 and 2 control human breast cell fate via crosstalk with ERα

      • Adrian Britschgi
      • Stephan Duss
      • Sungeun Kim
      • Joana Pinto Couto
      • Heike Brinkhaus
      • Shany Koren
      • Duvini De Silva
      • Kirsten D. Mertz
      • Daniela Kaup
      • Zsuzsanna Varga
      • Hans Voshol
      • Alexandra Vissieres
      • Cedric Leroy
      • Tim Roloff
      • Michael B. Stadler
      • Christina H. Scheel
      • Loren J. Miraglia
      • Anthony P. Orth
      • Ghislain M. C. Bonamy
      • Venkateshwar A. Reddy
      • Mohamed Bentires-Alj

      Ablation of the large tumour suppressor kinases 1 and 2 promotes a luminal breast cell phenotype through stabilization of oestrogen receptor-α, thereby changing human breast cell fate.

    • Structural basis for ArfA–RF2-mediated translation termination on mRNAs lacking stop codons

      • Paul Huter
      • Claudia Müller
      • Bertrand Beckert
      • Stefan Arenz
      • Otto Berninghausen
      • Roland Beckmann
      • Daniel N. Wilson

      The structure of the bacterial ribosome stalled on a truncated mRNA in complex with ArfA and the release factor RF2 is presented, revealing how ArfA recruits RF2 to the ribosome and induces conformational changes within RF2 to enable translation termination in the absence of a stop codon.

      See also
      See also
    • Mechanistic insights into the alternative translation termination by ArfA and RF2

      • Chengying Ma
      • Daisuke Kurita
      • Ningning Li
      • Yan Chen
      • Hyouta Himeno
      • Ning Gao

      The structure of the bacterial 70S ribosome in complex with ArfA, the release factor RF2, a short non-stop mRNA and a cognate P-site tRNA is presented, revealing how ArfA and RF2 facilitate alternative translation termination of the non-stop ribosomal complex using a stop-codon surrogate mechanism.

      See also
      See also

    Corrigendum

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    • Corrigendum: Lens regeneration using endogenous stem cells with gain of visual function

      • Haotian Lin
      • Hong Ouyang
      • Jie Zhu
      • Shan Huang
      • Zhenzhen Liu
      • Shuyi Chen
      • Guiqun Cao
      • Gen Li
      • Robert A. J. Signer
      • Yanxin Xu
      • Christopher Chung
      • Ying Zhang
      • Danni Lin
      • Sherrina Patel
      • Frances Wu
      • Huimin Cai
      • Jiayi Hou
      • Cindy Wen
      • Maryam Jafari
      • Xialin Liu
      • Lixia Luo
      • Jin Zhu
      • Austin Qiu
      • Rui Hou
      • Baoxin Chen
      • Jiangna Chen
      • David Granet
      • Christopher Heichel
      • Fu Shang
      • Xuri Li
      • Michal Krawczyk
      • Dorota Skowronska-Krawczyk
      • Yujuan Wang
      • William Shi
      • Daniel Chen
      • Zheng Zhong
      • Sheng Zhong
      • Liangfang Zhang
      • Shaochen Chen
      • Sean J. Morrison
      • Richard L. Maas
      • Kang Zhang
      • Yizhi Liu